Diaphragm walls usually used in areas where earth pressure due to water and surcharge is very high. It provided a water tight shoring system and replaces the necessity of additional retaining wall
Secant wall is used when the earth pressure due to water and surcharge is medium. It also provide a watertight shoring and cheaper than diaphragm wall
It is used when the earth pressure due to water and surcharge is less and a watertight shoring is not required. It is cheaper than secant wall
H Beam shoring is used when the depth of excavation is less and there is no significant surcharge load. It is not watertight but less expensive and easy to construct
Sheet piles are used when the soil is very loose and it provide almost water tight shoring. Usually used in sandy soils and near sea shores for shallow depth.